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Amidalgon,Spasmoxale . ethyl 4-morpholino-2,2-diphenyl-butanoate второй синтетический анальгетик [Nov. 12th, 2017|11:10 pm]
Aspects of Criminalization

kostyad
Оригинал взят у kostyad в Amidalgon,Spasmoxale . ethyl 4-morpholino-2,2-diphenyl-butanoate второй синтетический анальгетик
первый синтетический анальгетик долантин он же петидин он же лидол изобрел в 1937 немецкий химик Otto Eisleb . второй синтетический анальгетик амидалгон amidalgon он же spasmoxal изобрели немецкие химики Max Bockmuhl и Gustav Ehrhart в 1938 . DRP 711,069 выдан 25 сентября 1941 заявка 11 сентября 1938 . USP 2,230,774 выдан 4 февраля 1941 заявка 23 августа 1939 . доза около 100 мг по силе равна около 15 мг морфин сульфат и примерно равен по силе петидину он же лидол . применяется в тб и в сиропе от кашля в дозах от 5 мг в мл сиропа .в первом патенте три лекарства . в двух других в 4-м положении пиперидино- и диметиламино-

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History of methadone 2007 метадон . фенадон [Sep. 13th, 2017|10:54 pm]
Aspects of Criminalization

kostyad
Оригинал взят у kostyad в History of methadone 2007 метадон . фенадон
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/44634402_The_Early_History_of_Methadone_Myths_and_Facts Bulletin on Anesthesia History 2007 v 25 n 3 p 13-16 в сети есть первый патент США на ближайший аналог метадона ,что впервые синтезировали в Германии в 1938 .там не дифениламинокетон ,а этиловый эфир морфолиноэтил-дифенилуксусной кислоты доза около 100 мг .это лекарство в виде сиропа от кашля и сейчас производится в двух странах . в этом патенте синтез диметиаламиноэтил-дифенилуксусной кислоты этиловый эфир ,ближайший аналог которого , норметадон он же долофин производился в Германии с 1944 по 1964 тб по 25 мг . Ehrhart Gustav, Bockmuhl Max USP 2.230.774 - 4 feb 1941 . appl 23 aug 1939 . appl in Ger. 4 july 1938

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проф Базилевская Н.А. 7 подвидов Papaver somniferum [Nov. 19th, 2016|04:48 am]
Aspects of Criminalization

kostyad
Оригинал взят у kostyad в проф Базилевская Н.А. 7 подвидов Papaver somniferum
Труды по прикладной ботанике,генетике и селекции 1931 том 25  номер 5 стр 185-196  . Основные ботанико-систематические группы опийного мака .  это вторая часть труда проф Базилевской по опийному маку . начало .там же 1928 том 19 номер 2 стр 95-184 .принципиально культурный мак делят на две группы .первая дает много опия .он выращивается в Китай,Индия,Афганистан,Персия,Турция,Египет,Македония ,Северная Киргизия и Восточный Казахстан .и вторая дает много семян .в статье даны ботанические ключи определения 7 подвидов опийного мака .все описания на латыни и рус яз . на стр 189 . Papaver somniferum .   1 . Subtpontaneum -полудикая раса дает до 40 кг опия на гектар . 2. Tianshanicum -Тяньшанский . 3. Songaricum -Джунгарская растет в Казахстане . 4.Tarbagaticum -Тарбагатская растет в Казахстане .5. Chinense -Китайская .6.Turcicum -Турецкая растет в Малой Азии скороспелость 90-110 дней высокая морфинность опия .эту расу опийного мака проф Базилевская скрещивала с высокоопийными сортами при выведении лучших в мире сортов опийного мака в 1927-1936 . 7.Persicum-Персидская растет в Персия и Афганистан и Индия и Египет и Средняя Азия  . обе работы проф Базилевской по маку надо издать репринтом в виде книги .в этом номере журнала  1931 том 25 номер 5 хорошая статья Уткин Л.А.  Организация сбора и обработки лекарственных растений стр 5-103 . на стр 55-56 про опийный мак . хашаши -груз . мекон-арм .лала-тюрк. из сухих незрелых головок мака делают врачебный сироп .в СССР опийный мак выращивают в Алма-Атинском и Каракольском и Джаркентском и Фрунзенском районе и отчасти на Дальнем Востоке в Уссурийском крае .первые посадки мака в Семиречье в 1916 около 5 тыс десятин
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Дубинин дбн три лекции о наркотиках 2011 [Oct. 8th, 2016|04:24 am]
Aspects of Criminalization

kostyad
Оригинал взят у kostyad в Дубинин дбн три лекции о наркотиках 2011
сегодня просмотрел лекцию доктора биологических наук об опиатах 2011  . очевидно у него фальшивая дисс .доктора наук . в лекции 40 проц ложь и ошибки и неточности .он об опиатах прочитал в 100 раз меньше, чем я .  он врет что много лет изучает опиаты на практике .иначе бы не врал про зависимость .тк в книгах в СССР и в научных журналах СССР до 1975 не писали ,что опиаты, массово применяемые в медицине обязательно вызывают зависимость . во время войны 1939-1945 в СССР потребляли в медицине около 500 кг героина в год  или 100 миллионов доз в год и нигде в медицинских журналах и газетах  и книгах не писали о наркомании от героина . Дубинин ошибочно говорит ,что опий в Европе появился с Крестовыми походами .в реальности опиумный мак вывели в Древней Греции и уже 2300 лет назад в медицине были опий и экстракт опия и настойка опия на вине и суппозитории из топленого свиного жира с опием . Дубинин ошибочно говорит, что героин в 4 раза сильнее морфина .в реальности только в два раза . ВДР 0.010  ВСД 0.020  фармакопея России 6-е изд 1910  .  ВРД 0.005  ВСД 0.015   Фармакопея СССР 8-е изд 1952  .  Дубинин ошибочно говорит, что героин в СССР запретили в 1924  . в реальности в 1925 установили норму отпуска героина на один рецепт 0.3 грамма или 60 доз и эта норма была 30 лет до 1954 . и реально заретили героин в СССР в 1960, с выходом 9-го издания Фармакопеи СССР и подписанием в 1961 Конвенции о наркотиках . почитал бы он настоящих ученых, например академика Кравкова  например двух томник 1918 . или проф Когана 1948 или проф Машковского 1948 и 1953 и 1954 и 1957 и 1960  и 1964 и 1967  и 1971 и 1977 и 1998 Лекарства 20 века  и книги по фармакогнозии проф Гаммерман 1933 и 2-е изд 1938 и 3-е изд 1940 и 4-е изд 1948 и справочник по лекарствам автор Вотчал 1934  и фармакопею СССР 8-е изд 1952 и дополение к фармакопее СССР 1952   . добавлю Дубинин говорит, что героин применяли от кашля 100 лет назад .в реальности до 1956 . Дубынин ни слова не говорит про митригуанин и другие алкалоида Кратома, которые хорошо обезбаливают и при этом не вызывают зависимость
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w-18 новый наркотик ,от которого умирают жители Канады [Mar. 17th, 2016|11:43 pm]
Aspects of Criminalization

kostyad
Оригинал взят у kostyad в w-18 новый наркотик ,от которого умирают жители Канады
на рус сайте би-би-си ошибочно написано что это лекарство из группы фентанилов . его изобрели в 1981 в Канаде и никогда не применяли в медицине или в ветеринарии . в публикациях на англ яз ошибочно пишут что он в 10 тыс раз сильнее морфина .реально его активность не выше чем 3-метил-фентанил и карфентанил . те доза около 15-50 микрограмм .автор получил на него и всю группу от w-1 до w-32 патент США в 1984 . его подпольно изготавливают в Китае и делают из него таблетки с маркировкой оксикодон . лекарство мю агонист . для лечения передозировок нужно применять налоксон и лучше налтрексон или налмефен . пишут что он в 100 раз сильнее фентанила ,но насколько мне известно нет анальгетиков с дозой при оральном приеме меньше 50 микрограмм . у фентанила доза при оральном приеме в виде леденцов для сублингвального приема 200 микрограмм. его внесли в список наркотиков в Канаде 17 февраля 2016 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W-18

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Novel Psychoactive Substances . Classification ,Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 Paul Dargan [Apr. 6th, 2014|12:25 am]
Aspects of Criminalization

kostyad
Оригинал взят у kostyad в Novel Psychoactive Substances . Classification ,Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013 Paul Dargan
подарили новую книгу по психофармакологии  Paul Dargan ,David Wood    Novel psychoactive substances 2013    440 p как изучу напишу рецензию те есть ли в книге реально новые вещества что появились последние 20 лет   книга сборник глав разных авторов    -пож посмотрите названия глав этой книги на сайте sciencedirect.com и там можно найти много ссылок на новые статьи на эту тему вплоть до марта 2014 -  авторы книги будут принимать участие в научной конференции по теме книги в Италии в Риме в мае 2014  это уже 3-я конференция по новым психоактивным веществам     --изучил три главы книга хорошая. нашел вещество про которое читал еще в 1980  аналог лекарства пипрадол он же пиридрол где добавили метил на азоте и гидрокси в 3-м положении пиперидина, у активного оптического изомера доза всего 0.25 мг те это самый сильный психостимулятор  его изучали на добровольцах в дозах до 3 мг в сутки Waler L.A.  Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 1968 v 11 N 4 p 792-794   и обнаружил что много аналогов пипрадола изучали в СССР  например дифенилпролинол и аналог где вместо пиперидина азациклогептан Химико-фармацевтический журнал 1967 т 1 N 1 стр 30-35
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в 1936 в СССР выведен сорт мака которым сейчас засеян Афганистан Papaver Somniferum и 7 комм [Aug. 11th, 2013|04:30 pm]
Aspects of Criminalization

kostyad
Оригинал взят у kostyad в в 1936 в СССР выведен сорт мака которым сейчас засеян Афганистан Papaver Somniferum и 7 комм
Оригинал взят у kostyad в в 1936г в СССР выведен сорт мака которым сейчас засеян афганистан
проф Базилевская Н.А. в 1927-1936г изучала 8 подвидов опийного мака скрещивала высокоопийные и высокоморфиновые сорта и вывела высокоопийные и высокомрфиновые сорта мака -этим сортом засеяли восточную германию в 1946, польшу, венгрию, болгарию,чехословакию , румынию и югославию -а в 1980-1981  им засеяли Афганистан где компартия ссср производила героин и продавала его в европе -социалистическое растениеводство 1936 N 19 стр 41-54  -добавлю из современных книг на эту тему -Papaver Somniferum Sofia 1971 -A MAK . Papaver Somniferum Budapest 2001 -пож прочитайте три статьи Наркотики с привкусом коммунизма . Российская газета 1991 декабрь 19,20,21 номера 279-282 . постановление Никиты Сергеевича Хрущева О производстве наркотиков и их тайном экспорте в капиталистические страны ,которое было озвучено в Москве в конце 1957 на собрании руководителей спецслужб СССР КГБ ,ГДР ШТАЗИ,Чехословакии,Болгарии,Венгрии,Польши,Румынии,Югославии и позже к этой секретной программе подключилась Куба тк через Кубу в США КГБ много лет поставлял наркотики .Московские новости 1991 N 10 стр 12 . Новое время 1993 N 29 стр 36-37
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медитация и ДМТ Naranjo Claudio - Szara St - Strassman Rick-Meditation and DMT [May. 31st, 2013|03:58 am]
Aspects of Criminalization

kostyad
Оригинал взят у kostyad в медитация и ДМТ Naranjo Claudio - Szara St - Strassman Rick-Meditation and DMT

меня сегодня умный человек кажется из москвы спросил -есть ли публикации что дмт образуется при медитации -но я ответил в подзамочном посте поэтому не могу называть жж где сегодня подробно ответил -рик страссман в конфликте с общиной буддистов сша из за своих статей на эту тему в 1990-1996г -по данным научных статей дмт в мозге человека легче образуется когда в пище достаточно триптофана и метионина и есть недостаток кислорода и поэтому триптофан не окисляется с перегруппировкой в никотиновую кислоту а метилируется -поэтому буддизм появился в горах тибета -для тех кто не был на моих лекциях напоминаю что впервые предположил что ДМТ образуется в шишковидной железе в мозге человека чилийский психиатр Claudio Naranjo в 1967 и он же предположил что мелатонин циклизуется с образованием 6-метоксигармалина который усиливает действие ДМТ --позже эту теорию развил в 1971г венгерский биохимик и психиатр Szara St. который с 1958г живет и работает в сша и современную теорию создал Rick Strassman в 1991г и в 2009г были открыты рецепторы эндогенного ДМТ в мозге человека -об этом писал в сообщ ru_lsd 19 мая 2011г и на эту тему уже было около 50 статей в научных журналах начиная с 1961г когда в моче человека впервые нашли эндогенный ДМТ----Strassman  Rick    Psychedelic   Monogr   Essays   1991 v 5 p  166--205
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Nagai Nagyoshi 1844--1929 эфедрин метамфетамин первитин [Jan. 31st, 2013|04:40 pm]
Aspects of Criminalization

kostyad
Оригинал взят у kostyad в Nagai Nagyoshi 1844--1929 эфедрин метамфетамин первитин
вчера изучал историю изобретения первитина который сейчас применяется как лекарство под названием метамфетамин methamphethamine . в японии жил замечательный человек Nagai Nagyoshi  род в 1844 закончил школу учился в японии позже в 1871 поехал учится в германию и в германии защитил дисс и решил изучать органическую химию природных веществ .в 1873 вернулся в японию организовал японское химическое общество .о нем глава в книге на англ 125 лет японскому химическому обществу -эту книгу читал в рос нац библ на невском ее библ подарило консульство японии в СПБ .И он организовал японское фармацевтическое общество в 1880 позже в 1885 он первый в мире выделил чистый эфедрин из растения эфедра которая как пишет проф Мелентьева Г.А.  Фармацевтическая химия 1977 т2 применяется в китае и др странах в медицине уже пять тысяч лет при болезнях носоглотки и легких и никому не вредила пока по примеру сша с 1989 не ввели отпуск эфедрина по рецепту .а сейчас в россии лекарства для дыхания трайфед сироп- актифед- терофун не купить и по рецепту .позже в 1892 он изучал реакции аминоспиртов с йодом и фосфором и получил дезоксиэфедрин о чем опубликовал статью в японском журнале в 1893 ссылка есть в википедии на немецком статья метамфетвмин -.о нем есть статья в википедии на англ -. и на него ссылаются в статье википедии на англ метамфетамин- . ссср первитин  в 1938-1941 получал как гуманитарную помощь из фашисткой германии и изучали на ежиках в спячке и несчастные ежики после укола первитина просыпались зимой и не понимали что происходит -об этом есть статья ученых которые изучали первитин в харькове в 1940-1941  Кошктоянц Х.С Доклады Академии наук СССР 1943 том 39 стр 216-218. позже первитин для советской армии и нквд поступал из англии в 1942-1946 и есть замечательная статья в журнале- советская медицина 1942 том 6 номер 1-2 стр 8-11  что фенамин и первитин помогают бороться за дело ленина-сталина--.в 1947 в ссср началось промышленное производство первитина порошок и тб по 3 мг и впервые его включили в справочник проф Машковского М.Д. в 1948 причем до 1955 г первитин и его более слабый аналог фенамин никак не контролировались и только в 1954 издали приказ о контроле и продаже рабочим и крестянам ссср по рецепту врача .в медицине в ссср первитин был до 1975 г и позже его применяли только как лекарство для срочной или ночной работы в КГБ -ГРУ и в спецназе армии где и сейчас в аптечке НЗ обязательно тб фенамин -важно отметить что за 30 лет когда в ссср в 1942-1974 первитин легально применяли как обычное лекарство никто не умер и не было сильных отравлений и если были нарушения психики только если в КГБ или  -ГРУ его ежедневно принимали ночью и не спали три -пять дней -а сейчас отравления от винта не от первитина а от ядовитых примесей тк когда люди дома повторяют реакцию нагаи нагаеши они не очищяют от 1-фенил-1-йод-2-метиламинопропана который легко разрушается при кипячении со щелочью и так же образуется небольшое количество токсичногофенилметил- азиридина ---обе ядовитые примеси легко отделяются при перегонке основания метамфетамина при давлении около 10 мм ...как пишут в научной литературе LD 50  для лекарства первитин 15 мг на кг веса те около одного грамма для человека весом 70 кг а тб первитина по 3 мг и высшая суточная доза 15 мг те чтобы отравится надо сьесть более 300 тб что нереально тк по рецепту продавали не больше 10 тб те максимум 30 мг в руки и рецепт забирали в аптеке -а от 30 мг первитина обычный человек будет в возбуждении от 6 до 12 часов и возможно ему будет трудно заснуть если примет после 12 дня .в армии применяли обычно две тб в день те безвредную дозу 6 мг.

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Россия воет от боли [Jan. 31st, 2013|01:39 pm]
Aspects of Criminalization

kostyad
Оригинал взят у kostyad в Россия воет от боли

Уже два века у врачей есть сильные средства обезболивания, а последние 30 лет наука о боли дала возможность смягчать страдания даже при самой жестокой боли. К несчастью, эти достижения недоступны в России. Сейчас, когда вы читаете эти строки, десятки тысяч людей по всей стране воют от боли, проклинают врачей и все святое и грызут подушку

www.novayagazeta.ru

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methamphethamine метамфетамин первитин [Jan. 29th, 2013|01:02 pm]
Aspects of Criminalization

kostyad
Оригинал взят у kostyad в methamphethamine метамфетамин первитин
сейчас в интернете на 24_doc.ru в 13 ч фильм самый опасный наркотик сша 2006  -52 мин -вчера видел этот фильм по тел по каналу 24 док --несколько дней назад по каналу 24 док был хороший док фильм про торговлю героином в сша --в сша максимально было 1 млн 400 тыс героиновых наркоманов -для сравнения в австралии всего 19 тыс наркоманов 

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(no subject) [Apr. 26th, 2006|02:58 pm]
Aspects of Criminalization

leolapyre
Students for Sensible Drug Policy Northeast Conference and Rock Against Racism Concert at SUNY New Paltz this weekendCollapse )
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Injustice for some?? [Nov. 17th, 2005|11:12 pm]
Aspects of Criminalization

mommy1152004
[Current Mood |pissed offpissed off]

Some one answer me this please. I took a "random" drug test on the 7th of Nov. I haven't taken anything other than the following things in the past 3 months: Prozac, Benadryl, a tetnus booster, birth control pills, ibprophen, and ETOH (alcohol, but I tested positive for benzodiazapines (valium, ativan, xanax). I am in grave danger of being dropped from my nursing classes because of this. Like I said, though, I haven't taken any benzodiazapines. What could cause this kind of false positive reading? I am really stressing this, because I could be thrown out of school for something that I haven't done. Please help if you know anything about this!! I am making really good grades and I don't want to have done all of this hard work for nothing. I had to jump through a million hoops just to be able to go to school this semester. I am definately not going to do anything to jeprodize my education, and I don't want this to go down without a fight!!!

What's really gotten under my skin more than anything else, though is the thought that this might be something that someone is doing to get me kicked out. I don't want to think things like that, but I know I haven't done any pills like that. Also, I have been told time and again by my instructors that I will not be allowed to see the first two reports from LabCorp. They refuse to even tell me which benzodiazapine I have tested positive for.

I really hope someone can give me a clue at least as to where to look for this information, because I really can't afford to be kicked out of school. I started nursing school once before, when I was 18. I did not appriciate the gift of higher education then, but now that I have a husband and a daughter that will be 2 years old in 2 months, I have a greater apprication for my education. I want to be able to have a career in psychiatric nursing, because when I was younger and needed help myself, I realized how underserved the mentally ill can be.

If anyone knows anything either comment on this posting, or e-mail me at tommy_n_liz_haynes@hotmail.com.
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(no subject) [Apr. 14th, 2005|03:40 pm]
Aspects of Criminalization

ilovethemoon
[Current Mood |happyhappy]

http://www.dopcampaign.org/ please! check this out and send your support. not necessarily money, but call/ e-mail your state representatives! i heard about this today and i think it's the first good sign from our government in Years. my jaw it the floor. =)
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(no subject) [Mar. 15th, 2005|11:44 am]
Aspects of Criminalization

jamescaviezel
On the behalf of angelsfromgod, I cordially invite you to join a brand new community that's all about peace, love, and God.



Share your story!




Jess.
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hi! i'm new here! [Mar. 4th, 2005|07:33 pm]
Aspects of Criminalization

lady_mayfaire
i'd like to ask if curare is still used for treatments today?
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narcotichrist [Jan. 13th, 2005|10:26 pm]
Aspects of Criminalization

_voodoodoll
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Narco Dollars for Dummies [Dec. 14th, 2004|12:17 pm]
Aspects of Criminalization

kmo
Actual Title:

Narco-Dollars for Beginners: "How the Money Works" in the Illicit Drug Trade: Part I in a Series



By Catherine Austin Fitts

Link: http://www.narconews.com/Issue20/narcodollars1.html

Summary: Catherine Austin Fitts, a former Assistant Secretary of Housing-Federal Housing Commissioner in the first Bush Administration, makes the argument that so much money made from the sale of illicit drugs ends up invested in legitimate enterprises that if the US ended prohibition in one fell swoop the resulting fallout would leave major corporations so starved for investment capital that it would wreck the US and world ecconomies.

Except:
One day, Forest, my dog, and I were up in Georgie's apartment to enjoy a fresh plate of scrapple that Georgie had fried up that morning. The conversation turned to narco dollars. Georgie said that looking at the big picture was simply too overwhelming. Couldn't I explain this without using the words millions or billions - just dollars and cents in terms of our neighborhood in West Philadelphia?
I always have this problem explaining international money flows to moms and grandmoms. Most really great women want to know about the real world. The world of real people - her world full of her kids and grandkids and other kids she loves.

So we got out a blank piece of paper and started to estimate.

Every day there are two or three teenagers on the corner dealing drugs across from our home in Philadelphia. We figured that if they had a 50% deal with a supplier, did $300 a day of sales each, and worked 250 days a year that their supplier could run his net profits of approximately $100,000 through a local fast food restaurant that was owned by a publicly traded company.

Assuming that company has a stock market value that is a multiple of 20-30 times its profits, a handful of illiterate teenagers could generate approximately $2-3 million in stock market value for a major corporation, not to mention a nice flow of deposits and business for the Philadelphia banks and insurance companies.


Part I didn't really lend itself to excerpting. The quoted passage comes from Part II.

Questions for discussion:

  • Do you think the consequences of Dave and Sam's respective career choices as described in Part I would lead to the consequences Catherine Austin Fitts describes?

  • Would you push the big red button on the lectern in Part III? Why, or why not?

  • Do you think Fitts' proposal for raising the Solari Index would really amount to "the biggest capital gains opportunity in America?" If not, what alternative approach do you think would offer a better chance of success?

    Cross posted to: libertarianism and drugwar
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    (no subject) [Dec. 13th, 2004|04:08 pm]
    Aspects of Criminalization
    i_s_d
    DEA Ruling Makes FDA Approval of Medical Marijuana Impossible
    by MARIJUANA POLICY PROJECT

    In a blow to those who have urged medical marijuana advocates to seek FDA approval of marijuana as a prescription drug, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration has acted to block the only proposed research project that could lead to marijuana's FDA approval. In its letter to Lyle Craker, Ph.D., of the University of Massachusetts Amherst, the DEA appeared to slam the door completely shut on the FDA approval process.

    Barring favorable action by the U.S. Supreme Court, the decision leaves medical marijuana patients with no hope for protection from arrest for the foreseeable future except through state and federal legislation, officials of the Washington, D.C.-based Marijuana Policy Project (MPP) said today.

    On June 25, 2001, Dr. Craker, director of the university's Medicinal Plant Program, filed an application with the DEA for approval to establish a facility that would produce marijuana for FDA-approved research. Currently, all marijuana for research in the U.S. must come from a National Institute on Drug Abuse-contracted farm in Mississippi. NIDA's marijuana has been only inconsistently available to researchers and cannot be used for prescription sale. This makes FDA approval of marijuana effectively impossible unless an alternative source is made available, since testing would need to be done on the same product that is sold to patients.

    READ THE ARTICLE HERE.

    Talk Show Host Lobbies in Albany
    by BRIAN TAFFE

    After 13 years in television and nearly 2,600 shows, Montel Williams wants to meet you. More though, he just wants you to meet him.

    Aside from what you know him as: television host, military man, the face of Multiple Sclerosis -- now, you can add political activist to his resume.

    "I think that we have been dead wrong about something for about 85 years in this country. And what I think we're dead wrong about is medical marijuana," Williams said.

    READ THE ARTICLE HERE.
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    (no subject) [Dec. 12th, 2004|05:20 pm]
    Aspects of Criminalization
    i_s_d
    Administration Exploits Safety Concerns to Make Case Against Imports
    by U.S. REP. PETE STARK

    The Bush administration has again found itself on the wrong side of a hot-button political issue. This time it's prescription drug importation, which a majority of Americans and members of Congress support. Without a compelling argument to support their case against drug importation, the administration has resorted to a familiar tactic in their political playbook: fear.

    In hopes of swaying Americans from the truth, the administration and its allies in the drug industry are out making phony and scary claims. They warn that drug importation is inherently unsafe, that imported drugs aren't subject to the same rigorous safety standards as in the United States, and that allowing importation will flood the market with dangerous counterfeit drugs.

    But the facts and just plain common sense belie their scare tactics.

    READ THE ARTICLE HERE.

    Europe's Experience Shows Strong Safeguards are Needed
    by GRAHAM SATCHWELL

    The U.S. presidential election saw re-importation of prescription drugs become one of the major dividing lines between Republicans and Democrats.

    President Bush says the jury is still out on whether re-importation is safe, while most Democrats say there is no reason that Americans shouldn't import cheaper medicines from abroad if it lowers costs for patients.

    Meanwhile, the Kaiser Family Foundation and the Harvard School of Public Health recently released results from a survey that found 80 percent of Medicare beneficiaries supported legalization of drug re-importation from Canada if it would lower costs.

    READ THE ARTICLE HERE.

    More Than Half Of Police Chiefs Oppose Legalizing Medicinal Marijuana, Survey Says
    by NORML

    Fewer than one in two police chiefs support the use of medicinal cannabis by authorized patients, according to the results of a survey of more than 300 police chiefs nationwide conducted by the Police Foundation and the think-tank Drug Strategies.

    Fifty-one percent of respondents said that local laws permitting "medical marijuana to be used for seriously ill individuals" are a "step in the wrong direction." Only 38 percent of respondents favored such a policy.

    The result sharply contrasts with national opinion polls, which demonstrate that 80 percent of Americans believe that it should be legal to dispense medical cannabis to qualified patients. However, the finding is similar to a previous 2004 survey conducted by the National Association of Chiefs of Police, in which 60 percent of respondents answered "no" to the question: "Should marijuana be legalized in the United States for those who have a legitimate medical need for the drug."

    READ THE ARTICLE HERE.

    Federal Bill Introduced Calling For Meta-Analysis Of Marijuana Research
    by NORML

    Federal legislation introduced last week seeks to require the US National Institutes on Drug Abuse (NIDA) to develop a "meta-analysis of the available scientific data regarding the safety and health risks of smoking marijuana and the clinically-proven effectiveness of smoking marijuana for medicinal purposes, and to require the Food and Drug Administration to promptly disseminate the meta-analysis." The bill, H.R. 5429, was introduced by longtime medical cannabis opponent Rep. Mark Souder (R-IN), along with Reps. Henry Bonilla (R-TX), Jack Kingston (R-GA), Pete Sessions (R-TX), and Christopher Smith (R-NJ).

    NORML Foundation Executive Director Allen St. Pierre said that the scientific record shows definitively that cannabis has medical utility, and criticized Rep. Souder's "longstanding and willful ignorance" of the subject.

    "NORML suggests that Rep. Souder and his colleagues begin their analysis by reviewing the National Academy of Sciences 1999 report, 'Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base,' which verified that cannabis is efficacious in the treatment of a number of symptoms, including nausea, appetite loss, and chronic pain," St. Pierre said.

    READ THE ARTICLE HERE.
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    (no subject) [Dec. 12th, 2004|09:38 am]
    Aspects of Criminalization
    i_s_d
    Medical Marijuana Facts
    by AMERICANS FOR MEDICAL MARIJUANA

    State Laws Protecting Patients

    Effective medical marijuana laws have been enacted through ballot initiatives in Alaska, California, Colorado, Maine, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. In Hawaii, an effective law was passed by the legislature and signed by the governor in June 2000. In Vermont, an effective law was passed by the legislature and allowed to become law without the governor's signature in May 2004.

    Medical Value

    Doctors and patients have found that marijuana can ease the symptoms of a variety of diseases, including: relief from nausea and increase of appetite; reduction of intraocular ("within the eye") pressure; reduction of muscle spasms; and relief from chronic pain.

    Many doctors recommend that their patients use marijuana as medicine when other prescriptions have failed. Indeed, access to medical marijuana is supported by: American Academy of Family Physicians; American Nurses Association; American Public Health Association; Lymphoma Foundation of America; National Nurses Society on Addictions; American Preventive Medical Association; New England Journal of Medicine; and National Association of People With AIDS.

    READ THE ARTICLE HERE.
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    (no subject) [Dec. 12th, 2004|12:08 am]
    Aspects of Criminalization
    i_s_d
    Reducing Tolerance To Morphine Could Aid Pain Therapy
    by BLTC RESEARCH

    Morphine is one of the most commonly used drugs in the treatment of severe and chronic pain. A major complication with its use over the long term is that patients develop tolerance to it, as well as becoming addicted.

    A way of reducing tolerance would be of great benefit, because it would allow doctors to use lower doses over longer periods and still control pain effectively.

    A study published in this week's issue of Cell provides just that, by showing that giving a small level of a different drug at the same time as morphine can reduce the development of tolerance.

    READ THE ARTICLE HERE.

    Utopian Pharmacology
    by BLTC RESEARCH

    MDMA/Ecstasy

    Can safe, sustainable analogues of MDMA be developed? There is an urgent need for non-neurotoxic empathogens and entactogens suitable for lifelong use. Alas no single "magic bullet" yet exists that replicates the subjective effects of MDMA on a long-term basis. Hence most of us are doomed to display the quasi-psychopathic indifference to each other characteristic of the MDMA-naïve state.

    A Brief History of MDMA

    MDMA [3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine: 'Ecstasy'] was first1 synthesized in 1912 by the German pharmaceutical company Merck. MDMA was patented in Darmstadt, Germany on May 16th 1914, issue number 274,350; and promptly forgotten. Merck's researchers had no idea of the significance of what they had done. Merck were searching for a good vasoconstrictor, a styptic to reduce bleeding. In 1912 two of their chemists, G. Mannish and W. Jacobsohn, created MDMA as a by-product while attempting to synthesise hydrastinin. MDMA is listed on Merck's patent-application merely as a chemical intermediate "for products of potential pharmaceutical value".

    MDMA surfaced again briefly as one of a number of agents used in clandestine US military research during the 1950s. The CIA's Project MK-Ultra was investigating new techniques of brainwashing, espionage and mind-control. MDMA, code-named EA-1475, was tested at the US Army's Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland. However, unlike LSD or the ill-named "truth drug" scopolamine, MDMA was used only on animals: mice, rats, pigs, monkeys and dogs. Thankfully, MDMA's military potential was not realised. For although MDMA is no infallible truth-serum, its effects on the human user might indeed be abused for sinister purposes by skilled interrogators. The heightened emotional responsiveness, lowering of defensive barriers, openness and sense of closeness to others induced by MDMA can promote an honesty of self-disclosure that might be manipulated for malign ends. Fortunately, this hasn't yet happened on an organised scale.

    READ THE ARTICLE HERE.

    Deadly Short Cuts
    by BLTC RESEARCH

    Heroin is named after the German word for hero, heroisch. According to popular legend, its substitute, methadone, was initially christened Dolophine in honour of Adolf Hitler. In reality, the name comes from the Latin dolor, meaning "pain", and fin, meaning "end": hence "end of pain".

    The consumption of heroin is marked by a euphoric rush, a warm feeling of relaxation, a sense of security and protection, and a dissipation of pain, fear, hunger, tension and anxiety. When heroin is snorted or smoked, the rush is intense and orgasmic. Subjectively, time may slow down. Any sense of anger, frustration or aggression disappears. Users enjoy the feeling of "being wrapped in God's warmest blanket".

    Heroin is the most fast-acting of all the opiates. When injected, it reaches the brain in 15-30 seconds; smoked heroin reaches the brain in around 7 seconds. The peak experience via this route lasts at most a few minutes. The surge of pleasure seems to start in the abdomen; a delicious warmth then spreads throughout the body. After the intense euphoria, a period of tranquillity ("on the nod") follows, lasting up to an hour. Experienced users will inject between 2-4 times per day. After taking heroin, some people feel cocooned and emotionally self-contained. Others feel stimulated and sociable. Either way, there is a profound sense of control and well-being. The euphoria gradually subsides into a dreamy and relaxed state of contentment. Higher doses of heroin normally make a person feel sleepy. At higher doses still, the user will nod off into a semi-conscious state. The effects usually wear off in 3-5 hours, depending on the dose. Heroin is not toxic to the organ systems of the body. But in prohibitionist society the mortality of street users is high.

    READ THE ARTICLE HERE.

    A Brief History of Opium
    by MARTIN BOOTH

    c.3400 B.C.

    The opium poppy is cultivated in lower Mesopotamia. The Sumerians refer to it as Hul Gil, the 'joy plant.' The Sumerians would soon pass along the plant and its euphoric effects to the Assyrians. The art of opium poppy-culling would continue from the Assyrians to the Babylonians who in turn would pass their knowledge onto the Egyptians.

    c.1300 B.C.

    In the capital city of Thebes, Egyptians begin cultivation of opium thebaicum, grown in their famous poppy fields. The opium trade flourishes during the reign of Thutmose IV, Akhenaton and King Tutankhamen. The trade route included the Phoenicians and Minoans who move the profitable item across the Mediterranean Sea into Greece, Carthage, and Europe.

    c.1100 B.C.

    On the island of Cyprus, the "Peoples of the Sea" craft surgical-quality culling knives to harvest opium, which they would cultivate, trade and smoke before the fall of Troy.

    READ THE ARTICLE HERE.

    Future Synthetic Drugs of Abuse
    by DONALD A. COOPER

    Introduction

    It seems likely that primitive man wished at times to escape his reality and most probably found some natural drug to facilitate this desire. In fact, abuse of the coca leaf and the opium poppy is thought to have been practiced for at least the last 3400 years (Lathrap 1976; Rosengarten 1969) and the use of peyote may have been known as early as 1000 BC (Schultes 1938; 1940). Perhaps due in part to the long history of opiate products, one of the first derivatives of a natural drug to be used pharmaceutically was heroin. The acceptance of heroin as a pharmaceutical was primal in establishing the concept that certain structural modifications of physiologically active compounds can result in new compounds which cause biological responses which are not only similar, but are enhanced as compared to those of the parent compounds. Other works such as the structural elucidation of mescaline and the preparation of N-methyl and N-acetyl derivatives of mescaline has served to strengthen this concept and to broaden the scope of permissible derivatives (Spath 1919). In the ensuing years much knowledge has been gained regarding biologically useful derivatives of the naturally occurring drugs but, most importantly, the structures of the alkaloids and the protoalkaloids have, one by one, been elucidated. This knowledge has then allowed researchers of recent times to deduce many of the structure relationships associated with specific biological responses. The sum of this hardwon knowledge allows one to produce pharmaceutically useful compounds, which have no counterpart in nature, from off the shelf chemicals. Unfortunately there are those people who would take this body of knowledge and, rather than use it for the enhancement of medical science, use it for their own financial gain. Individuals such as these have created the so-called designer drug phenomenon.

    Henderson (1986) first described a synthetic drug as one which was designed by a clandestine chemist to produce a certain pharmacological response. However, today designer drugs are universally understood to belong to a group of clandestinely produced drugs which are structurally and pharmacologically very similar to a controlled substance but are not themselves controlled substances (Langston and Rosner 1986). The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has noted that the designer drug terminology tends to cast a somewhat glamorous aura onto the concept, and as a result, the DEA feels that it would be wise to refer to these compounds in some other manner and suggests the use of the term Controlled Substance Analogs (CsA).

    In October of 1987 the United States Government amended the Controlled Substance Act in an effort to curtail the illicit introduction of new CsA's. This amendment states that any new drug which is substantially similar to a controlled substance currently listed under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Schedule I or II, and has either pharmacological properties similar to a Schedule I or II substance or is represented as having those properties, shall also be considered a controlled substance and will be placed in Schedule I. The amendment further contains provisions which exempt the legitimate researcher as well as compounds that are already being legally marketed from the provisions of the amendment.

    READ THE ARTICLE HERE.
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    (no subject) [Dec. 11th, 2004|09:47 pm]
    Aspects of Criminalization
    i_s_d
    What is Marinol®?
    by SOLVAY PHARMACEUTICALS

    Marinol® is a unique prescription medicine that may relieve multiple symptoms. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Marinol® to treat nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy in patients who have failed to respond adequately to conventional treatments.

    The FDA also approved Marinol® to treat appetite loss associated with weight loss in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Your health care professional may prescribe Marinol® to help stimulate your appetite so you’ll want to eat again.

    READ THE ARTICLE HERE.

    Marijuana Religion
    by THC MINISTRY AMSTERDAM

    "Marijuana religion, what would that be?" you might ask.

    Well, for one, nothing new. Marijuana has been used in religious rituals by many cultures since the beginning of human kind.

    Marijuana, has been, and still is, a Holy plant in many cultures on all the continents that it grows on, and it grows in nearly every continent on our beautifull planet, and in nearly every country. Tradition in India maintains that the gods sent man the Hemp plant so that he might attain delight, courage, and have heightened sexual desires. When nectar or Amrita dropped down from heaven, Marijuana sprouted from it. Another story tells how, when the gods, helped by demons, churned the milk ocean to obtain Amrita, one of the resulting nectars was Marijuana. It was consecrated to Shiva and was [the godess] Indra’s favourite drink.

    READ THE ARTICLE HERE.
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    (no subject) [Dec. 11th, 2004|09:19 pm]
    Aspects of Criminalization
    i_s_d
    Shattered Grass?
    by SARAH PHELAN

    It's not looking good for medical marijuana advocates in the landmark case currently before the Supreme Court. As they watch with a mixture of hope and horror at justices arguing about wheat production rather than the medical and humanitarian importance of the case, they're already asking the toughest question of all: 'What happens if we lose?'

    "WAMM is a club you literally have to be dying to get into," says Val Corral, co-founder of the Wo/Men's Alliance for Medical Marijuana.

    As if to illustrate her point, the photos of 140 WAMM members who've died cover "The Wall of the Dead" in the collective's West Side office. They are only barely outnumbered by the group's 175 surviving members, including spiritual luminary Ram Dass and novelist Robert Anton Wilson, whose access to pot's pain-relieving, nausea-inhibiting properties hangs in the balance on the opposite coast.

    READ THE ARTICLE HERE.
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